A power conversion efficiency of over 20% has been achieved in CH3NH3PbI3-based perovskite solar cells (PSC), however, low thermal stability associated with the presence of a phase transition between tetragonal and cubic structures near room temperature is a major issue that must be overcome for future practical applications. Here, the influence of the phase transition on the thermal stability of PSCs is investigated in detail by comparing four kinds of perovskite films with different compositions of halogen atoms and organic components. Thermally stimulated current measurements reveal that a large number of carrier traps are generated in solar cells with the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 as a light absorber after operation at 85 °C, which is higher than the phase-transition temperature. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further exclude effects of a possible morphology change on the formation of carrier traps. These carrier traps are detrimental to the thermal stability. The thermogravimetric analysis does not show a decomposition for any of the materials in the temperature range relevant for operation. The perovskite alloys do not have this phase transition, resulting in effectively suppressed formation of carrier traps. PSCs with improved thermal stability under the standard thermal cycling test are demonstrated.
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