Demand for banked bone allografts is increasing in Japan; however, there are too few bone banks and the bone bank network is not well-established. One reason for this was lack of funding for banks. Bone banks had to bear all material expenses of banked bone allografts themselves because this was not designated a covered expense. In December 2004, the Japanese government started a new "Advanced Medical Treatment" administration system which allowed an approved institution to charge the expense of authorized advanced medical treatments directly to patients. The treatment named "Cryopreserved allogenic bone and ligamentous tissue retrieved from cadaveric donor" was approved as an advanced medical treatment in March 2007. We present the calculation method and the expense per implantation of a banked bone allograft from a cadaveric donor under this treatment and raise issues which affect this advanced medical treatment and remain to be resolved in the Japanese orthopaedic field.
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