The immune system is deeply involved in autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, and narcolepsy. Additionally, the immune system is involved in various brain diseases including cerebral infarction and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In particular, reports related to T cells are increasing. T cells may also play important roles in brain deterioration and dementia that occur with aging. Our understanding of the role of immune cells in the context of the brain has been greatly improved by the use of acute ischemic brain injury models. Additionally, similar neural damage and repair events are shown to occur in more chronic brain neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of T cells, including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in cerebral infarction and neurodegenerative diseases.