Lead-free tin perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show the most promise to replace the more toxic lead-based perovskite solar cells. However, the efficiency is significantly less than that of lead-based PSCs as a result of low open-circuit voltage. This is due to the tendency of Sn2+ to oxidize into Sn4+ in the presence of air together with the formation of defects and traps caused by the fast crystallization of tin perovskite materials. Here, post-treatment of the tin perovskite layer with edamine Lewis base to suppress the recombination reaction in tin halide PSCs results in efficiencies higher than 10%, which is the highest reported efficiency to date for pure tin halide PSCs. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data suggest that the recombination reaction originates from the nonstoichiometric Sn:I ratio rather than the Sn4+:Sn2+ ratio. The amine group in edamine bonded the undercoordinated tin, passivating the dangling bonds and defects, resulting in suppressed charge carrier recombination.
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