Background/Objectives: The prevalence of myopia is higher in preterm infants who underwent laser photocoagulation (LPC) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with myopia in preterm infants who undergo LPC for ROP. Subjects/Methods: We retrospectively analysed the medical records of preterm infants born at Kyushu University Hospital (October 2008–March 2018) at ≤32 weeks of gestational age or with birth weight ≤1500 g. We evaluated the associations between nine clinical factors and the spherical equivalent at 1-year corrected age by performing multivariable linear regression in LPC-treated ROP patients. Results: Among the 485 infants enroled, 76 developed ROP requiring treatment. Of these, 71 underwent LPC, which was provided to 63 infants as the primary treatment (LPC alone or the combination therapy of LPC and intravitreal injection of bevacizumab [IVB]) and to eight infants as additional LPC after IVB monotherapy. The results of a refractive examination at 1-year corrected age were available for 110 eyes of 56 infants (78.9%). The mean ± standard deviation of the SE value was −0.5 ± 3.0 dioptres (D). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between laser spot count and SE value (ß = −0.081 ± 0.040 D per 100 spots [mean ± standard error], p = 0.045). Conclusions: Our results suggest that an increased laser spot count observed during ROP treatment associates with myopia.
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