Reproductive organs have unique developmental and functional properties that enable them to manage both germ cell development and the endocrine system in a sex-dependent manner. Proper reconstitution of the reproductive organs, therefore, will contribute to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying germ cell development and sex-determination. However, reproductive organs have not yet been systematically reconstituted from pluripotent stem cells. This is largely due to technical problems in the reconstitution of the germ cell and somatic cell lineages, which have very different developmental trajectories. Accordingly, faithful construction of reproductive organoids requires that the reconstitution and evaluation of these two different cell lineages be performed separately. Here, we update the state-of-the-art in the reconstitution of reproductive organoids that produce functional oocytes.
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