This review highlights recent developments and applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques to enhance the detection sensitivity in microchip electrophoresis (MCE); references are mainly from 2008 and later. Among various developed techniques, we focus on the sample preconcentration based on the changes in the migration velocity of analytes in two or three discontinuous solutions system, since they can provide the sensitivity enhancement with relatively easy experimental procedures and short analysis times. The characteristic features of the on-line sample preconcentration applied to microchip electrophoresis (MCE) are presented, categorized on the basis of "field strength-" or "chemically"induced changes in the migration velocity. The preconcentration techniques utilizing field strength-induced changes in the velocity include field-amplified sample stacking, isotachophoresis and transient-isotachophoresis, whereas those based on chemically induced changes in the velocity are sweeping, transient-trapping and dynamic pH junction.
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