This study aimed to determine whether quantitative relaxometry using synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (SyMRI) could differentiate between two diffuse glioma groups with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant tumors, achieving an increased sensitivity compared to the qualitative T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch sign. Between May 2019 and May 2020, thirteen patients with IDH-mutant diffuse gliomas, including seven with astrocytomas and six with oligodendrogliomas, were evaluated. Five neuroradiologists independently evaluated the presence of the qualitative T2-FLAIR mismatch sign. Interrater agreement on the presence of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. SyMRI parameters (T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density) were measured in the gliomas and compared by the Mann–Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient were 57.1%, 100%, and 0.60, respectively, for the qualitative T2-FLAIR mismatch sign. The two types of diffuse gliomas could be differentiated using a cutoff value of 178 ms for the T2 relaxation time parameter with 100% sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 1.00. Quantitative relaxometry using SyMRI could differentiate astrocytomas from oligodendrogliomas, achieving an increased sensitivity and objectivity compared to the qualitative T2-FLAIR mismatch sign.
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