Background: Infection control during COVID-19 outbreaks in nursing facilities is a critical public health issue. Antibody responses before and after the third (booster) dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in nursing home residents have not been fully characterized. Methods: This study included 117 individuals: 54 nursing home residents (mean age, 83.8 years; 39 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 15 previously infected) and 63 healthcare workers (mean age, 45.8 years; 32 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 31 previously infected). Anti-spike (receptor-binding domain [RBD]) and anti-nucleocapsid antibody responses to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination and their related factors were evaluated using pre- (shortly and 6 months after the second dose) and post-booster vaccination samples. Results: The median anti-spike (RBD) IgG level in SARS-CoV-2-naive residents 6 months after the second dose was the lowest among the four groups, with a decreasing rate of over 90%. The median rate of increase before and after the third dose in SARS-CoV-2-naive residents was significantly higher than that in SARS-CoV-2-naive healthcare workers (64.1- vs. 37.0-fold, P = 0.003), with the highest level among the groups. The IgG ratio of SARS-CoV-2-naive residents to healthcare workers after the second and third doses changed from one-fifth (20%) to one-half (50%). The rate of increase after the third dose in previously infected individuals was three- to fourfold, regardless of residents or healthcare workers. Conclusions: Advanced aged nursing home residents, poor responders in the initial SARS-CoV-2 vaccine series, could obtain sufficient antibody responses with the additional booster dose, despite more than 6 months after the second.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes