Bone invasion is a critical factor in determining the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is abundantly expressed in the bone matrix and is involved in the acquisition of aggressiveness by tumors. TGF-β is also important to cytoskeletal changes during tumor progression. In this study, we examined the relationship between TGF-β signaling and cytoskeletal changes during bone invasion by OSCC. Immunohistochemical staining of OSCC samples from five patients showed the expression of p130Cas (Crk-associated substrate) in the cytoplasm and phosphorylated Smad3 expression in the nucleus in OSCC cells. TGF-β1 induced the phosphorylation of Smad3 and p130Cas, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by the downregulation of the expression of E-cadherin, a marker of epithelial cells, and the upregulation of the expression of N-cadherin, or Snail, a marker of mesenchymal cells, in human HSC-2 cells and mouse squamous cell carcinome VII (SCCVII) cells. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of Smad2/3 signaling, abrogated the TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of p130Cas and morphological changes. Silencing p130Cas using an short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA in SCCVII cells suppressed TGF-β1-induced cell migration, invasion, EMT and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production. Compared with control SCCVII cells, SCCVII cells with silenced p130Cas strongly suppressed zygomatic and mandibular destruction in vivo by reducing the number of osteoclasts, cell proliferation and MMP-9 production. Taken together, these results showed that the expression of TGF-β/p130Cas might be a new target for the treatment of OSCC bone invasion.