Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) can be considered an important absorber layer material for utilization in thin film solar cell devices because of its non-toxic, earth abundance, and cost-effective properties. In this study, the effect of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a buffer layer on the different parameters of CZTS-based solar cell devices was explored to design a highly efficient solar cell. While graphene is considered a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer for the superior quantum efficiency of CZTS thin film solar cells, MoS2 acts as a hole transport layer to offer electron–hole pair separation and an electron blocking layer to prevent recombination at the graphene/CZTS interface. This study proposed and analyzed a competent and economic CZTS solar cell structure (graphene/MoS2/CZTS/Ni) with MoS2 and graphene as the buffer and TCO layers, respectively, using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS)-1D. The proposed structure exhibited the following enhanced solar cell performance parameters: open-circuit voltage—0.8521 V, short-circuit current—25.3 mA cm−2, fill factor—84.76%, and efficiency—18.27%.
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