Background: Mucosal incision-assisted biopsy (MIAB) is a valuable alternative to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration/biopsy (EUS-FNAB) for sampling gastric subepithelial lesions (SELs). This study aimed to evaluate the potential risk of dissemination and impact on postoperative prognosis associated with MIAB, which has not yet been investigated. Methods: Study 1: A prospective observational study was conducted to examine the presence or absence and growth rate of tumor cells in gastric juice before and after the procedure in patients with SELs who underwent MIAB (n = 25) or EUS-FNAB (n = 22) between September 2018 and August 2021. Study 2: A retrospective study was conducted to examine the impact of MIAB on postoperative prognosis in 107 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed using MIAB (n = 39) or EUS-FNAB (n = 68) who underwent surgery between January 2001 and July 2020. Results: In study 1, although no tumor cells were observed in gastric juice in MIAB before the procedure, they were observed in 64% of patients after obtaining samples (P < 0.001). In contrast, no tumor cells were observed in the gastric juice in EUS-FNAB before and after the procedure. In study 2, there was no significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival between MIAB (100%) and EUS-FNAB (97.1%) (P = 0.27). Conclusion: MIAB is safe, with little impact on postoperative prognosis, although the procedure releases some tumor cells after damaging the SEL’s pseudocapsule.
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