Bacteriocin production in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has always been considered as a highly desirable trait as it enhances the strain's utility in different industrial applications. Bacteriocin producing LAB strains are considered to have higher bacterial fitness as they are able to easily establish themselves into target microbial niche and hence are more effective starter cultures in food fermentation and/or probiotic strains. The rapid advancement in genomic research revealed the true bacteriocin producing capacity of some select novel LAB strains capable of producing multiple bacteriocins which further improves their utility in different application systems. What is common to these novel strains is the remarkable sharing of some elements in the biosynthetic process enabling them to accomplish the extraordinary feat of producing multiple bacteriocins without exhausting its energy. Contrary to the common understanding that biosynthetic enzymes are specific to their cognate bacteriocins, multiple bacteriocin producing strains employ shared biosynthetic elements between their multiple bacteriocins. The quorum-sensing three-component regulatory system, bacteriocin maturation and transport mechanisms are shared among multiple bacteriocins in these strains. Nevertheless, although these novel strains possess enormous application potential, their safety with regards to their potential virulence and pathogenicity needs to be confirmed through comprehensive genotypic characterization. Here, we compile the occurrence of multiple bacteriocin production in some novel LAB strains and highlight specific examples of the unique sharing mechanism of its biosynthetic machinery because a good understanding how these novel strains synthesize their multiple bacteriocins can aid in maximizing their application potential.
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