Rapid technological advances in molecular biology, including next-generation sequencing, have identified key genetic alterations in central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Accordingly, the fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) CNS tumor classification was published in 2021. We analyzed 303 patients with diffuse glioma using an amplicon-based glioma-tailored gene panel for detecting 1p/ 19q codeletion and driver gene mutations such as IDH1/2, TERTp, EGFR, and CDKN2A/B on a single platform. Within glioblastomas (GBMs), the most commonly mutated genes were TERTp, TP53, PTEN, NF1, and PDGFRA, which was the most frequently mutated tyrosine kinase receptor in GBM, followed by EGFR. The genes that most commonly showed evidence of loss were PTEN, CDKN2A/B, and RB1, whereas the genes that most commonly showed evidence of gain/amplification were EGFR, PDGFRA, and CDK4. In 22 grade III oligodendroglial tumors, 3 (14%) patients had CDKN2A/B homozygous dele-tion, and 4 (18%) patients had ARID1A mutation. In grade III oligodendroglial tumors, an ARID1A mutation was associated with worse progression-free survival. Reclassification based on the WHO 2021 classification resulted in 62.5% of grade II/III isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype astrocytomas be-ing classified as IDH-wildtype GBM and 37.5% as not elsewhere classified. In summary, our glioma-tailored gene panel was applicable for molecular diagnosis in the WHO 2021 classification. In addi-tion, we successfully reclassified the 303 diffuse glioma cases based on the WHO 2021 classification and clarified the genetic profile of diffuse gliomas in the Japanese population.
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