There are numerous cultivars of tea (Camellia sinensis L.), but the differences in their anti-hyperglycemic-related effects are largely unknown. The inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV enzyme plays an essential role in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes by blocking the degradation of incretin hormones, which is necessary for insulin secretion. In this study, we examined the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of leaf extracts from diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. The inhibitory rates differed among tea extracts. Metabolic profiling (MP), using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, of all cultivars revealed compositional differences among cultivars according to their DPP-IV inhibitory capacity. Epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, myricetin-3-O-glucoside/galactoside, and theogallin were newly identified as DPP-IV inhibitors. The bioactivity of a tea extract was potentiated by adding these ingredients in combination. Our results show that MP is a useful approach for evaluating the DPP-IV inhibitory potency of green tea and for determining bioactivity-related ingredients and combinations.
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