SKD1 belongs to the AAA-ATPase family and is one of the mammalian class E Vps (vacuolar protein sorting) proteins. Previously we have reported that the overexpression of an ATPase activity-deficient form of SKD1 (suppressor of potassium transport growth defect), SKD1(E235Q), leads the perturbation of membrane transport through endosomes and lysosomes, however, the molecular mechanism behind the action of SKDI is poorly understood. We have identified two SKD1-binding proteins, SBP1 and mVps2, by yeast two-hybrid screening and we assign them as mammalian class E Vps proteins. The primary sequence of SBP1 indicates 22.5% identity with that of Vta1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was recently identified as a novel class E Vps protein binding to Vps4p. In fact, SBP1 binds directly to SKD1 through its C-terminal region (198-309). Endogenous SBP1 is exclusively localized to cytosol, however it is redirected to an aberrant endosomal structure, the E235Q compartment, in the cells expressing SKD1(E235Q). The ATPase activity of SKD1 regulates both the membrane association of, and assembly of, a large hetero-oligomer protein complex, containing SBP1, which is potentially involved in membrane transport through endosomes and lysosomes. The N-terminal half (1-157) of human SBP1 is identical to lyst-interacting protein 5 and intriguingly, SKD1 ATPase activity significantly influences the membrane association of lyst protein. The SKD1-SBP1 complex, together with lyst protein, may function in endosomal membrane transport. A primary sequence of mVps2, a mouse homologue of human CHMP2A/BC-2, indicates 44.4% identity with Vps2p/Did4p/Chm2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. mVps2 also interacts with SKD1 and is localized to the E235Q compartment. Intriguingly, the N-terminal coiled-coil region of m Vps2 is required for the formation of the E235Q compartment but not for binding to SKD1. We propose that both SBP1 and mVps2 regulate SKD1 function in mammalian cells.
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