Rationale & Objective: Malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) is common in patients receiving hemodialysis and increases the risks of morbidity and mortality. However, few studies have examined the overall impact of MICS on disorders of the bone-cardiovascular axis. Study Design: Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants: A total of 3,030 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis registered in the Q-Cohort Study. Predictors: A newly developed score for MICS composed of elements chosen from 8 baseline parameters related to nutrition and inflammation by bootstrap resampling, multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard risk analysis for all-cause mortality, and the risk prediction rule. β-coefficients of each element analyzed in the multivariable-adjusted model were used for the creation of the MICS score. Outcomes: Bone fractures, cardiovascular disease events, and the composite outcome of bone fractures and cardiovascular disease events. Analytical Approach: Cox proportional hazard regression and Fine-Gray proportional subdistribution hazards regression. Results: During a median follow-up of 4 years, 140 patients developed bone fractures and 539 developed cardiovascular disease events. Age; serum levels of creatinine, albumin, and C-reactive protein; and body mass index were selected for the creation of the MICS score. The median (IQR) MICS score was 196 (181-212). The multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard risk model and the competing risk model showed that a higher MICS score was incrementally associated with elevated risks of bone fractures, cardiovascular disease events, and the composite outcome; hazard risks (95% CIs) of fractures, cardiovascular disease events, and the composite outcome for each 10-point increase in the MICS score were 1.18 (1.01-1.38), 1.16 (1.07-1.26), and 1.15 (1.07-1.24), respectively. Limitations: One-time measurement of the parameters used for the creation of the MICS score. Conclusions: Malnutrition and inflammation represented by the MICS score were associated with increased risks of bone-cardiovascular axis disorders in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.
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