Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) is an autoantibody associated with acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS) in childhood and adults. The pathogenic roles of MOG-Ab and long-term outcomes of children with MOG-Ab-associated disease (MOGAD) remain elusive. We investigated the clinical features of children with ADS during follow-up in our institute. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed using medical charts of patients managed in Kyushu University Hospital from January 1st, 2001, to March 31st, 2022. Participants were children of < 18 years of age when they received a diagnosis of ADS in our hospital. Cell-based assays were used to detect MOG-Ab in serum or cerebrospinal fluid at the onset or recurrence of ADS. The clinical and neuroimaging data of MOG-Ab-positive and MOG-Ab-negative patients were statistically analyzed. Among 31 patients enrolled in this study, 22 (13 females, 59%) received tests for MOG antibodies. Thirteen cases (59%) were MOG-Ab-positive and were therefore defined as MOGAD; 9 (41%) were MOG-Ab-negative. There were no differences between MOGAD and MOG-Ab-negative patients in age at onset, sex, diagnostic subcategories, or duration of follow-up. MOGAD patients experienced headache and/or somatosensory symptoms more frequently than MOG-Ab-negative patients (12/13 (92%) vs. 3/9 (22%); p = 0.0066). Somatosensory problems included persistent pain with hyperesthesia in the left toe, perineal dysesthesia, and facial hypesthesia. No specific neuroimaging findings were associated with MOGAD or the presence of somatosensory symptoms. Conclusions: Long-lasting somatosensory disturbances are prominent comorbidities in children with MOGAD. Prospective cohorts are required to identify molecular and immunogenetic profiles associated with somatosensory problems in MOGAD. What is Known: • Recurrence of demyelinating events occurs in a group of children with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). What is New: • Long-lasting headache and somatosensory problems are frequent comorbidities with pediatric MOGAD. Pain and somatosensory problems may persist for more than 5 years. • Neuroimaging data do not indicate specific findings in children with somatic disturbances.
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