Shallow, implosive non-double-couple (NDC) earthquakes have been detected beneath Unzen Volcano, Japan, by a routinely operated seismometer network. Here, we analyze the waveforms from 14 temporary seismic stations around Mt. Fugen (Fugendake) and Heisei-Shinzan Lava Dome, which formed during the 1990–1995 eruptions, to further investigate this shallow seismicity. We also estimate the subsurface electrical resistivity structure using broadband magnetotelluric observations and investigate its relationship to the shallow seismicity. We find that (1) implosive NDC earthquakes occur at the craters that were active during the 1990–1991 eruptions, which are currently buried by the approximately 200-m-thick Heisei-Shinzan Lava Dome; (2) the detected NDC earthquakes generally possess downward P-wave arrivals, although upward P-wave arrivals are observed at a few seismic stations; (3) the tensile axes of the NDC earthquakes show various slip directions; (4) repeated NDC earthquakes are in some cases detected within 20 s of the initial event; and (5) a high-resistivity zone exists beneath the NDC earthquakes. We conclude that the implosive NDC earthquakes were generated by the collapse of small, randomly oriented, vapor-filled voids at the two buried craters, with active volcanic conduits still present beneath these craters. The shallow DC earthquakes consist of two clusters that are located 2–3 km below the NDC earthquakes. The focal mechanisms of the shallower cluster (approximately 2 km depth) indicate various fault mechanism, whereas those of the deeper cluster (approximately 3 km depth) indicate strike-slip faulting. The top of the shallower cluster corresponds to the base of the conductive zone, which suggests that the DC earthquakes in the shallower cluster are generated in a zone of high pore pressure that is capped by a hydrothermally altered clay layer.
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