Background: Long-term survival can be achieved with radical local therapy in some cases of postoperative recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we evaluated post-recurrence survival (PRS) after treatment of postoperative recurrent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated NSCLC and examined the effectiveness of radical local therapy. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in 14 hospitals. The inclusion criteria for this study were patients with recurrence after radical resection for NSCLC. Information about the patient characteristics at recurrence, tumor-related variables, primary surgery, and treatment for recurrence was collected. After registration, follow-up data (e.g., treatment and survival outcomes) were obtained and analyzed. Results: From 2010 to 2015, 505 patients with recurrent NSCLC were enrolled into the study, and 154 EGFR mutation-positive cases were included. As the initial treatment for recurrence, 111 patients (72%) received chemotherapy, 14 (9%) received chemoradiotherapy, 14 (9%) received definitive radiotherapy, and seven (5%) received surgical resection. The remaining eight patients (5%) received supportive care. The median PRS and 5-year survival rates for all cases were 64 months and 53.2%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate according to the initial treatment was as follows: supportive care, 0%; chemotherapy, 53.3% and radical local therapy, 60.1%. The six patients who received radical local treatment remained recurrence-free for more than 3 years after recurrence with only initial treatment. Conclusions: Although radical local therapy may be curative in some patients, chemotherapy including EGFR-TKI treatment is expected to provide long-term survival comparable to that of radical local therapy.
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