Collective excitations and trajectory deflection are investigated to lower the applicable energy range of the intranuclear cascade model to around 50 MeV. First, inclusive (p,p′x) reaction processes that lead to noncollective and collective excitations are formulated under the Born approximation. Then, collective excitations and trajectory deflection are introduced into the framework of the intranuclear cascade model. As collective excitations, low-energy vibrational excitations and giant resonances are considered. The trajectory deflection is assumed to be given by the experimental angular distribution of proton-nucleus elastic scattering. Finally, numerical calculations are conducted for (p,p′x) reactions on 56Fe at 29.9 and 61.5 MeV. The predictive capability of the proposed model is validated through comparison with experimental observations. The proposed model gives reasonably good predictions of (p,p′x) reactions and proton elastic scatterings.
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