Chemorefractory ovarian cancer has limited therapeutic options. Hence, new types of treatment including neoantigen-specific immunotherapy need to be investigated. Neoantigens represent promising targets for personalized cancer immunotherapy. We here describe the clinical and immunological effects of a neoantigen peptide-loaded DC-based immunotherapy in a patient with recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. A 71-year-old female patient with chemorefractory ovarian cancer and malignant ascites received intranodal vaccination of DCs loaded with four neoantigen peptides that were predicted by our immunogenomic pipeline. Following four rounds of vaccinations with this therapy, CA-125 levels were remarkably declined and tumor cells in the ascites were also decreased. Concordantly, the tumor-related symptoms such as respiratory discomfort improved without any adverse reactions. The reactivity against one HLA-A2402-restricted neoantigen peptide derived from a mutated PPM1 F protein was detected in lymphocytes from peripheral blood by IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Furthermore, the neoantigen (PPM1 F mutant)-specific TCRs were detected in the tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes post-vaccination. Our results showed that vaccination with intranodal injection of neoantigen peptide-loaded DCs may have clinical and immunological impacts on cancer treatment.
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