Background: An inverse relationship exists between hospital case volume and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). However, hospital performance factors associated with mortality in HF patients have not been examined. We aimed to identify these using exploratory factor analysis and assess the relationship between these factors and 7-day, 30-day, and in-hospital mortality among HF patients in Japan. Methods and Results: We analyzed the records of 198,861 patients admitted to 683 certified hospitals of the Japanese Circulation Society between 2012 and 2014. Records were obtained from the nationwide database of the Japanese Registry Of All cardiac and vascular Diseases-Diagnostic Procedure Combination (JROAD-DPC). Using exploratory factor analysis, 90 hospital survey items were grouped into 5 factors, according to their collinearity: “Interventional cardiology”, “Cardiovascular surgery”, “Pediatric cardiology”, “Electrophysiology” and “Cardiac rehabilitation”. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between these factors and mortality. The 30-day mortality was 8.0%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the “Pediatric cardiology” (odds ratio (OR) 0.677, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.628–0.729, P<0.0001), “Electrophysiology” (OR 0.876, 95% CI: 0.832–0.923, P<0.0001), and “Cardiac rehabilitation” (OR 0.832, 95% CI: 0.792–0.873, P<0.0001) factors were associated with lower mortality. In contrast, “Interventional cardiology” (OR 1.167, 95% CI: 1.070–1.272, P<0.0001) was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions: Hospital factors, including various cardiovascular therapeutic practices, may be associated with the early death of HF patients.
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