In recent years, primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma has been increasingly detected in the duodenum on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Primary gastrointestinal follicular lymphomas are frequently distributed to multiple sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, investigation into the spread of follicular lymphomas in the small bowel is important in order to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy. The performance of double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) in the diagnosis of jejunoileal follicular lymphoma lesions has not been fully evaluated. We aimed to investigate the value of DBE in addition to computed tomography (CT) and 18F- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of jejunoileal follicular lymphoma. DBE with biopsy was performed in seven patients with primary duodenal follicular lymphoma diagnosed by EGD, in order to investigate jejunoileal involvement. Jejunoileal follicular lymphoma lesions were detected by DBE in six out of the seven patients (three in the jejunum and three in the jejunum and ileum), whereas CT and 18F-FDG- PET failed to detect the existence of these lesions. Endoscopic findings of the jejunoileal lesions revealed multiple white nodules and white villi, which were similar to those of duodenal lesions. DBE was more useful for the diagnosis of jejunoileal involvement in primary intestinal follicular lymphoma than CT and 18F-FDG-PET. The use of DBE will become important for determining the most appropriate treatment for gastrointestinal follicular lymphoma.
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