We reported a case of molecularly defined isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant astrocytoma that recurred twice with aggressive behavior and increased anaplastic morphology. Primary and recurrent tumors were analyzed using custom-made DNA-based cancer gene and RNA-based fusion panels for next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS analyses revealed that recurrent astrocytoma, in addition to IDH1 and tumor protein 53 mutations detected in the primary lesion, harbored cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 2 A/B homozygous deletion and neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase 2 (NTRK2) fusion genes that consisted of golgin A1- and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit associated protein 2-NTRK2 fusions. Anaplasia and necrosis were observed in the recurrent tumors, but not in the primary lesion. Therefore, the integrative diagnosis was primary IDH-mutant astrocytoma grade 2 and recurrent IDH-mutant astrocytoma grade 4 with NTRK2 fusions. This is a worthwhile report describing a case of IDH-mutant astrocytoma that showed genomic evolution during tumor recurrence. Our report suggests that NTRK fusion and CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion promote high-grade transformation and indicate an unfavorable prognosis of IDH-mutant astrocytoma.
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