Fluid-filled fractures and fissures often determine the pathways and volume of fluid movement. They are critically important in crustal seismology and in the exploration of geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We introduce a model for tube wave scattering and generation at dipping, parallel-wall fractures intersecting a fluid-filled borehole. A new equation reveals the interaction of tube wavefield with multiple, closely spaced fractures, showing that the fracture dip significantly affects the tube waves. Numerical modeling demonstrates the possibility of imaging these fractures using a focusing analysis. The focused traces correspond well with the known fracture density, aperture, and dip angles. Testing the method on a VSP data set obtained at a fault-damaged zone in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan, presents evidences of tube waves being generated and scattered at open fractures and thin cataclasite layers. This finding leads to a new possibility for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring in situ hydraulic properties of dipping fractures using the tube wavefield.
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