Fuel cell catalyst studies using nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene are reviewed. Significant support effects have been reported for Pt or PtRu electrocatalysts supported by CNTs or graphene. The modification in the electronic structures of Pt or PtRu particles are ascribed to the interface interaction between π-conjugated systems of carbon and d states of Pt or PtRu based on surface science studies. Non-Pt cathode catalysts using nitrogen-doped carbon are then reviewed. The active sites of nitrogen-doped carbons are discussed using recently reported surface science data.
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