To assess compliance with the Japanese antiemetic guidelines for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), the frequencies of CINV occurrence and use of antiemetic rescue medications were examined in patients with hematological malignancy. A total of 40 patients with hematologic malignancy were eligible in this study. This study was performed in the Department of Hematology, Kyushu University Hospital, as a subgroup analysis from a nationwide, multicenter prospective cohort study conducted by the CINV Study Group of Japan. In the patients with hematological malignancy, the guideline compliance rate was 45 %. Five patients (22.7 %) experienced vomiting during the observation period after receiving non-guideline-consistent antiemetic prophylaxis, whereas no patient experienced vomiting after receiving guideline-consistent antiemetic prophylaxis. The study was not sufficiently powered to reach a statistical significance in its frequency of occurrence between the compliance and non-compliance groups. In the entire study period, 8 out of 40 patients required rescue medication, but there was no association between the status of compliance and the antiemetic guidelines. A total of 22 (55.0 %) patients achieved complete response, which was defined as no vomiting and no use of antiemetic rescue medication, during the study period. The rate of compliance with the prophylactic antiemetic treatment guidelines seemed to be low in patients with hematological malignancy, although the status of the guideline compliance did not always influence the antiemetic effects.
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