Engineering of hybrid gene clusters between the toluene metabolic tod operon and the biphenyl metabolic bph operon greatly enhanced the rate of biodegradation of trichloroethylene. Escherichia coli cells carrying a hybrid gene cluster composed of todC1 (the gene encoding the large subunit of toluene terminal dioxygenase in Pseudomonas putida F1), bphA2 (the gene encoding the small subunit of biphenyl terminal dioxygenase in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707), bphA3 (the gene encoding ferredoxin in KF707), and bphA4 (the gene encoding ferredoxin reductase in KF707) degraded trichloroethylene much faster than E. coli cells carrying the original toluene dioxygenase genes (todC1C2BA) or the original biphenyl dioxygenase genes (bphA1A2A3A4).
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