Effects of processing parameters in the sonic assisted water extraction (SAWE) of 6-gingerol

Syaripah Zaimah Syed Jaapar, Noor Azian Morad, Yoshio Iwai, Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin

研究成果: ジャーナルへの寄稿学術誌査読

12 被引用数 (Scopus)


The use of water in subcritical conditions for extraction has several drawbacks. These include the safety features, higher production costs and possible degradation of the bioactive compounds. To overcome these problems, sonic energy and an entrainer were used as external interventions to decrease the polarity of water at milder operating conditions. The effect of low (28 kHz) and high (800 kHz) frequencies of sonication in the extraction of the main ginger bioactive compound (6-gingerol) were compared. Six parameters were studied: mean particle size (MPS, mm), time of extraction, applied power, sample to solvent ratio (w/v), temperature of extraction, and the percentage of entrainer. The optimum conditions for high frequency SAWE prototype were MPS 0.89–1.77 mm, 45 min, 40 W applied power, 1:30 (w/v), 45 °C, and 15% of ethanol as entrainer. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) gave the most significant parameter, which was power with F (1, 45.07), p < 2.50 × 10−9. Although the effect of low frequency was stronger than high frequency, at the optimum conditions of the sample to solvent ratio 1:30 (w/v) with 700 mL solvent and temperature 45 °C, the concentration and recovery of 6-gingerol from high frequency of SAWE prototype was 2.69 times higher than at low frequency of SAWE. It was found that although the effects of high frequency (800 kHz) were negligible in other studies, it could extract suitable compounds, such as 6-gingerol, at lower temperature. Therefore, the effects of sonication, which cause an enlargement in the cell wall of the ginger plant matrix, were observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was found that the applied power of sonication was the most significant parameter compared to the other parameters.

ジャーナルUltrasonics Sonochemistry
出版ステータス出版済み - 9月 1 2017

!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 化学工学(その他)
  • 環境化学
  • 放射線学、核医学およびイメージング
  • 音響学および超音波学
  • 有機化学
  • 無機化学


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