We aimed to retrospectively investigate the demographic characteristics and short-term outcomes of traumatic cervical spine injuries in patients with dementia. We enrolled 1512 patients aged ≥ 65 years with traumatic cervical injuries registered in a multicenter study database. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of dementia, and 95 patients (6.3%) had dementia. Univariate analysis revealed that the dementia group comprised patients who were older and predominantly female and had lower body mass index, higher modified 5-item frailty index (mFI-5), lower pre-injury activities of daily living (ADLs), and a larger number of comorbidities than patients without dementia. Furthermore, 61 patient pairs were selected through propensity score matching with adjustments for age, sex, pre-injury ADLs, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale score at the time of injury, and the administration of surgical treatment. In the univariate analysis of the matched groups, patients with dementia had significantly lower ADLs at 6 months and a higher incidence of dysphagia up to 6 months than patients without dementia. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that patients with dementia had a higher mortality than those without dementia until the last follow-up. Dementia was associated with poor ADLs and higher mortality rates after traumatic cervical spine injuries in elderly patients.
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