To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC) for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate)). In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) on the surface of conventional AC (c-AC), AC(ate) and a plastic cell dish. The number of osteoblastic cells showing initial attachment to AC(ate) was greater than those attached to c-AC and similar to the number attached to the plastic cell wells. We also found that osteoblastic cells were well spread and increased their number on AC(ate) in comparison with c-AC and the wells without specimens, while the amount of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIPC) produced in osteoblastic cells after three days on AC(ate) was greater as compared to the others. There was no significant difference in regard to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by osteoblastic cells among the three surface types after three and six days. However, after 12 days, ALP activity and the produced osteocalcin were greater with AC(ate). In conclusion, AC(ate) may be a useful material with high osteoconductivity for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery.
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