Background: To evaluate patients undergoing a new procedure, iliac vascular transposition, in pancreas transplantation regarding the risk of thrombosis and graft survival without heparin-based anticoagulation therapy. Methods: Iliac vascular transposition (IVT) involves changing the positions of the external iliac artery and vein relative to each other. In this study, this technique was evaluated in patients undergoing the procedure compared with patients not undergoing the procedure (iliac vascular parallel (IVP) group). Results: No patients received prophylactic heparin therapy. Two patients in the IVP group (n = 26) developed complete thrombosis and six developed partial thrombosis, compared with no patients with complete thrombosis and one with partial thrombosis in the IVT group (n = 29). The cumulative incidence of thrombosis was significantly higher in the IVP group (p < 0.01). Cox regression revealed that not receiving iliac vascular transposition was the only significant risk factor for thrombosis (odds ratio: 10.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.27–81.2; p = 0.03). One-year graft survival was significantly better in the IVT group vs IVP group (p = 0.03). Conclusions: IVT in pancreas transplantation is a simple technique that results in a lower thrombosis risk and better graft survival rates without heparin-based anticoagulation therapy.
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