Alemtuzumab is the treatment choice for patients with T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). However, patients with T-PLL have a poor prognosis, and the option of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains controversial in these patients. This study aimed to analyze the outcomes of allogeneic HCT among patients with T-PLL to identify the potential clinical efficacy of allogeneic HCT. We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 patients with T-PLL, including five patients with complex chromosomal abnormalities at diagnosis who received an allogeneic HCT between 2000 and 2016. The median follow-up of survivors was 51 months in allogeneic HCT from human leukemia antigen (HLA)-matched donors. All five patients with complex chromosomal abnormalities died after allogeneic HCT. Our data suggest that allogeneic HCT from an HLA-matched donor can be considered for patients with T-PLL without complex chromosomal abnormalities. New treatment strategies of allogeneic HCT are required to improve the safety and efficacy of allografting in patients with T-PLL and complex chromosomal abnormalities. Potential approaches that identify patients with T-PLL and complex chromosomal abnormalities for allogeneic HCT with better disease control may allow identification of individuals who are suitable for allogeneic HCT.
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