Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange combined with two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy has been widely used for studying the structure, stability, and dynamics of proteins. When we apply the H/D-exchange method to investigate non-native states of proteins such as equilibrium and kinetic folding intermediates, H/D-exchange quenching techniques are indispensable, because the exchange reaction is usually too fast to follow by 2D NMR. In this article, we will describe the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-quenched H/D-exchange method and its applications in protein science. In this method, the H/D-exchange buffer is replaced by an aprotic DMSO solution, which quenches the exchange reaction. We have improved the DMSO-quenched method by using spin desalting columns, which are used for medium exchange from the H/D-exchange buffer to the DMSO solution. This improvement has allowed us to monitor the H/D exchange of proteins at a high concentration of salts or denaturants. We describe methodological details of the improved DMSO-quenched method and present a case study using the improved method on the H/D-exchange behavior of unfolded human ubiquitin in 6 M guanidinium chloride.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes