Background: The ppGpp signaling system is operative in plant chloroplasts and bacteria. Results: Chloroplast and cytosolic guanylate kinases (GKs) of plants are sensitive and insensitive to ppGpp, respectively, whereas bacterial GKs show diversity in ppGpp sensitivity. Conclusion: GTP biosynthesis in chloroplasts is controlled by ppGpp. Significance: Identification of the targets of ppGpp should provide insight into biological processes regulated by this nucleotide.
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