Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) and non-MMD have different pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and treatment policy. Purpose: To identify differences in hemodynamics between MMD and non-MMD using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Material and Methods: Patients who had undergone 99mTc-ECD or 123I-IMP SPECT, and IVIM imaging were retrospectively studied. IVIM imaging was acquired using six different b-values. Cerebral blood flow ratio (CBFR) in the basal ganglia was calculated using a standardized volume-of-interest template. The cerebellum was used as a reference region. IVIM perfusion fraction (f) was obtained using a two-step fitting algorithm. Elliptical regions of interest were placed in bilateral basal ganglia on the IVIM f map. Patients were classified into MMD and non-MMD groups. The correlation between CBFR and mean IVIM f (fmean) in the basal ganglia was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: In total, 20 patients with MMD and 28 non-MMD patients were analyzed. No significant differences in fmean were observed among MMD, affected hemisphere with non-MMD (non-MMDaff), and unaffected hemispheres with non-MMD (non-MMDunaff). A negative correlation was seen between fmean and CBFR in the MMD group (r = –0.40, P = 0.0108), but not in the non-MMD group (non-MMDaff, r = 0.07, P = 0.69; non-MMDunaff, r = –0.22, P = 0.29). No significant differences were found among MMD and non-MMD patients, irrespective of SPECT tracers. Conclusion: The combination of IVIM MRI and SPECT appears to allow non-invasive identification of differences in hemodynamics between MMD and non-MMD.
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