Purpose: The Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) published a guideline (GL) on febrile neutropenia (FN) in 2017. This study aims to identify promoting factors and disincentives for complying with GL recommendations according to attributes of doctors providing chemotherapy. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted with SurveyMonkey™ for physician members of the Japanese Association of Supportive Care in Cancer and relevant academic organizations. Each question had four options (always do, do in more than half of patients, do in less than half, do not at all) and a free description form. Responses were analyzed according to the respondents’ attributes. Result: Seven hundred eighty-eight out of retrieved 801 responses were available for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the percentage of GL users was higher among women and Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology members. The overall compliance rate was higher among women, JSMO members, and board-certified medical oncologists. Internists emphasized the significance of collecting blood cultures at FN onset, and surgeons stressed the importance of G-CSF prophylaxis. Hematologists were less likely to adhere to recommendations on risk assessment of FN by the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer score and administration of gammaglobulin products. However, those are acceptable due to the characteristics of their practice. Eight recommendations had no difference in compliance rates between users and non-users, some of whose statements were ambiguous and discretionary. Conclusion: Women were more likely to use and adhere to GL. The recommendations should be developed considering the characteristics of specialty and subspecialty and avoiding ambiguity and discretionary statements.
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