Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the cell block (CB) method and clinical features affecting it in patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). Methods: This study enrolled 38 eyes in 33 VRL patients, and 7 eyes in 7 patients with idiopathic uveitis who underwent diagnostic vitrectomy. Medical records including the results of CB cytology, interleukin (IL)-10/-6 concentrations, and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) rearrangement were retrospectively searched. Results: Patients with VRL comprised 16 women and 17 men, and the age of onset ranged from 44 to 85 years (mean: 70 years). CB preparations detected large malignant cells in 35 eyes (92%), whereas the other 3 VRL eyes were negative. Two of the latter three eyes showed subretinal infiltrates, which existed in 7 of 35 CB-positive eyes. Intravitreal IL-10 and-6 concentrations were 1866 ± 4088 pg/mL and 98 ± 139 pg/mL, respectively, and the rate of IL-10/-6 >1 was 86.9%. The presence of IgH monoclonality was 63.2%. In patients with uveitis, CB specimens revealed no atypical but small inflammatory cells. IL-6 concentration was 311.1 ± 240 pg/mL, whereas IL-10 was undetectable in six eyes, and the IL-negative rate was 85.7%. Six eyes (85.7%) with uveitis showed no IgH monoclonality. Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy of CB preparations in VRL could achieve an equivalent outcome to IL ratio calculation and IgH monoclonality detection. The appearance of subretinal infiltrates may diminish the CB positivity.
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