Vitamin deficiencies are an emerging concern in the management of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Particular attention is required for recognizing the variable signs caused by unbalanced food intakes. We herein report two patients with multiple vitamin deficiencies who needed critical care showing different prognoses. Patient 1 with ‘Shoshin’ beriberi presenting with cardiac arrest had thiamine deficiency developed severe neurological sequelae despite rapid vitamin supplementation. Patient 2, who had leg pain and a limping gait, showed a rapid recovery with intravenous infusion and tube feeding after being diagnosed with scurvy. A literature search revealed several children with ASD with critically ill thiamine deficiency, but few reports documented a life-threatening condition in the form of cardiac arrest at the onset. Considering the high observation rate of food selectivity in children with ASD, early intervention is required to prevent the exacerbation of vitamin deficiencies to severe neurological disabilities.
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