Like glucose, fructose is a monosaccharide, but the mechanisms of its absorption and metabolism in the body are very different between the 2 molecules. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of glucose and fructose on food intake, diencephalic gene expression, and plasma metabolite concentrations in broiler chicks. The animals used in this study were 4-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308). They were given glucose, fructose (200 mg/ 0.5 mL/ bird), or a similar volume of distilled water orally after 6 h fasting. After treatment, measurements of food intake (at 0, 30, and 60 min), and blood glucose as well as insulin concentrations were measured over time; however, diencephalic (hypothalamus) gene expression and plasma metabolites were measured at 30 min. The results showed that glucose administration suppressed food intake, but fructose administration did not suppress food intake and it was at the same level as distilled water administration. In addition, fructose administration did not increase plasma glucose and insulin levels as did glucose administration. In the diencephalon, expression levels of genes related to the melanocortin system were unaffected by the treatment, while gene expression levels related to intracellular energy regulation, such as AMP-activated protein kinase were affected by the glucose treatment in the fasted chicks. These results suggest that fructose administration does not suppress feeding behavior as a result of possible reduction in the energy levels in the diencephalon and associated energy metabolism.
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