The aim of this study was to characterize a clonal human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cell line (line 2–23 cells) cultured with root canal sealers based on methacrylate resin (SuperBond sealer; SB), bioactive glass (Nishika Canal Sealer BG; BG), or silicon (GuttaFlow 2; GF). The sealers were set in rubber molds to form sealer discs. Line 2–23 cells were cultured with or without the discs for 3 days. The cell viability was evaluated by direct cell counting and MTT assay. Inflammation-, PDL-, collagen-, and cell cycle-related gene expression was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. Collagen production was analyzed by Picro Sirius Red staining. Calcium ion concentration in the culture was measured by a QuantiChrom calcium assay kit. Line 2–23 cells survived when cultured with GF discs, but decreased cell viability was observed with SB and BG discs. The expression of inflammation-related genes was higher in cells cultured with SB discs, and expression of PDL-related genes was lower in cells exposed to SB and BG discs. These discs also down-regulated collagen production in line 2–23 cells. BG discs increased calcium ion concentration in the culture medium. Cells exposed to GF discs exhibited the same inflammation-, PDL-, collagen-, and cell cycle-related gene expression and collagen production as untreated cells. These results suggested that the characteristics of line 2–23 cells cultured with GF discs was highly resemble to untreated cells throughout the 3 days of the culture model.
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