The activity of a self-sufficient cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP505D6, from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium was characterized. Recombinant CYP505D6 was produced in Escherichia coli and purified. In the presence of NADPH, CYP505D6 used a series of saturated fatty alcohols with C9-18 carbon chain lengths as the substrates. Hydroxylation occurred at the ω-1 to ω-6 positions of such substrates with C 9-15 carbon chain lengths, except for 1-dodecanol, which was hydroxylated at the ω-1 to ω-7 positions. Fatty acids were also substrates of CYP505D6. Based on the sequence alignment, the corresponding amino acid of Tyr51, which is located at the entrance to the active-site pocket in CYP102A1, was Val51 in CYP505D6. To understand the diverse hydroxylation mechanism, wild-type CYP505D6 and its V51Y variant and wild-type CYP102A1 and its Y51V variant were generated, and the products of their reaction with dodecanoic acid were analyzed. Compared with wild-type CYP505D6, its V51Y variant generated few products hydroxylated at the ω-4 to ω-6 positions. The products generated by wild-type CYP102A1 were hydroxylated at the ω-1 to ω-4 positions, whereas its Y51V variant generated ω-1 to ω-7 hydroxydodecanoic acids. These observations indicated that Val51 plays an important role in determining the regiospecificity of fatty acid hydroxylation, at least that at the ω-4 to ω-6 positions. Aromatic compounds, such as naphthalene and 1-naphthol, were also hydroxylated by CYP505D6. These findings highlight a unique broad substrate spectrum of CYP505D6, rendering it an attractive candidate enzyme for the biotechnological industry.
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