Background: Diet may influence disease risk by modulating adipokines. Although some foods and nutrients have been linked to circulating adipokine levels, little is known about the role of dietary patterns on adipokines. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a working population. Methods: The subjects were 509 employees (296 men and 213 women), aged 20 to 65 years, of two municipal offices. Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Dietary patterns were derived by using principal component analysis of the consumption of 52 food and beverage items, which were ascertained by a validated diet history questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between dietary pattern scores and adipokine concentrations, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Three major dietary patterns were extracted: a Japanese, a Westernized breakfast, and a meat food patterns. Of these, we found significant, inverse associations of the Westernized breakfast pattern, which was characterized by higher intake of confectioneries, bread, and milk and yogurt but lower intake of alcoholic beverages and rice, with serum leptin and PAI-1 concentrations in a fully adjusted model (P for trend=0.04 for both leptin and PAI-1). The other adipokines were not significantly associated with any dietary pattern. Conclusion: The Westernized breakfast dietary pattern may be associated with lower circulating levels of leptin and PAI-1.
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