MicroRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in diverse cellular biological processes such as inflammatory response, differentiation and proliferation, and carcinogenesis. miR-146a has been suggested as a negative regulator of the inflammatory reaction. Although, it has been reported as expressed in inflamed adipose and periodontal tissues, however, miR-146a's inhibitory effects against inflammatory response in both the tissues, are not well understood. Therefore, in this study, the inhibitory effects of miR-146a on both adipose and periodontal inflammation, was investigated. In vitro study has revealed that miR-146a transfection into either adipocytes or gingival fibroblasts, has resulted in a reduced cytokine gene expression, observed on co-culturing the cells with macrophages in the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in comparison to the control miRNA transfected. Similarly, miR-146a transfection into macrophages resulted in a reduced expression of TNF-α gene and protein in response to LPS stimulation. In vivo study revealed that a continuous intravenous miR-146a administration into mice via tail vein, protected the mice from developing high-fat diet-induced obesity and the inflammatory cytokine gene expression was down-regulated in both adipose and periodontal tissues. miR-146a appeared to be induced by macrophage-derived inflammatory signals such as TNF-α by negative feed-back mechanism, and it suppressed inflammatory reaction in both adipose and periodontal tissues. Therefore, miR-146a could be suggested as a potential therapeutic molecule and as a common inflammatory regulator for both obesity-induced diabetes and related periodontal diseases.
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