We herein report an autopsy case of the Marburg variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). A 29-year-old woman developed acute and progressive neurological symptoms. A diagnosis of MS was suspected based on the patient's clinical background and brain MRI findings and the lack of evidence of malignancy on a brain biopsy. Despite the administration of typical treatment for MS, a fatal outcome occurred three months after disease onset. The autopsy revealed multiple inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. In addition, two noteworthy histopathological features were observed compared with prototypical MS. We evaluate the pathogenic differences between the Marburg type and prototypical MS by discussing the neuropathology and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of our case.
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