Background: The consumption of Jerusalem artichoke has multiple beneficial effects against diabetes and obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers on postprandial glycemia and the concentrations of incretin hormones in humans. Method: Grated Jerusalem artichoke was administered prior to a meal (Trial 1; white rice for prediabetic participants, n = 10). Dose-dependent effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Trial 2; white rice for prediabetic partic-ipants, n = 4) and effect prior to the fat-rich meal were also investigated (Trial 3; healthy participants, n = 5) in this pilot study. Circulating glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and active glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations were subsequently measured in all the trials. Results: Jerusalem artichoke significantly reduced the glucose and GIP concentrations after the consumption of either meal in Trial 1 and Trial 3, whereas there were no differences in the insulin, glucagon, and active GLP-1 concentrations. Also, there was no significant difference in the triglyceride concentration after the ingestion of the fat-rich meal in Trial 3. The glucose and GIP-lowering effects were dose-dependent, and the consumption of at least 100 g of Jerusalem artichoke was required to have these effects in Trial 2. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that a single administration of Jerusalem artichoke tubers reduces postprandial glucose and active GIP concentrations in prediabetic and healthy individuals.
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