Objectives Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are highly susceptible to various microorganisms. However, no population-based studies have been performed among common viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rotavirus (RV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and influenza virus (IV). The objective of this study was to reveal the clinical burden of these four infections among PID patients in Japan. Methods We conducted a nationwide survey by sending questionnaires to 898 hospitals with pediatric departments throughout Japan. Results Nine hundred ten PID patients from 621 hospitals were registered (response rate: 69.2%). Fifty-four of the patients were hospitalized due to these viral infections. The durations of hospitalization due to RSV and RV infections differed significantly in the PID patients with and without cellular immunodeficiency (12.0 vs 6.5 days, p = 0.041; and 14.0 vs 6.0 days, p = 0.031, respectively). There was no significant difference in the duration of hospitalization in PID patients with and without cellular immunodeficiency who were hospitalized with IV infections (7.3 vs 6.1 days, p = 0.53). Conclusions Special attention should be paid to PID patients with compromised cellular immunity who present with RSV and RV infection due to their high risk for severe disease.
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