Background: Human deciduous pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) have remarkable stem cell potency associated with cell proliferation, mesenchymal multipotency, and immunosuppressive function and have shown beneficial effects in a variety of animal disease models. Recent studies demonstrated that hDPSCs exhibited in vivo anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory action and in vivo hepatogenic-associated liver regeneration, suggesting that hDPSCs may offer a promising source with great clinical demand for treating liver diseases. However, how to manufacture ex vivo large-scale clinical-grade hDPSCs with the appropriate quality, safety, and preclinical efficacy assurances remains unclear. Methods: We isolated hDPSCs from human deciduous dental pulp tissues formed by the colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) method and expanded them under a xenogeneic-free and serum-free (XF/SF) condition; hDPSC products were subsequently stored by two-step banking including a master cell bank (MCB) and a working cell bank (WCB). The final products were directly thawed hDPSCs from the WCB. We tested the safety and quality check, stem cell properties, and preclinical potentials of final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the MCB and WCB. Results: We optimized manufacturing procedures to isolate and expand hDPSC products under a XF/SF culture condition and established the MCB and the WCB. The final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the MCB and WCB were validated the safety and quality including population doubling ability, chromosome stability, microorganism safety, and stem cell properties including morphology, cell surface marker expression, and multipotency. We also evaluated the in vivo immunogenicity and tumorigenicity and validated in vivo therapeutic efficacy for liver regeneration in a CCl4-induced chronic liver fibrosis mouse model in the final hDPSC products and hDPSC products in the WCB. Conclusion: The manufacture and quality control results indicated that the present procedure could produce sufficient numbers of clinical-grade hDPSC products from a tiny deciduous dental pulp tissue to enhance clinical application of hDPSC products in chronic liver fibrosis.
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