Objectives: To compare the gamma distribution (GD), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and monoexponential (ME) models in terms of their goodness-of-fit, correlations among the parameters, and the effectiveness in the differential diagnosis of various orofacial lesions. Methods: A total of 85 patients underwent turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging with six b-values. The goodness-of-fit of three models was assessed using Akaike Information Criterion. We analysed the correlations and compared the effectiveness in the differential diagnosis among the parameters of GD model (κ, shape parameter; θ, scale parameter; fractions of diffusion: ƒ1, cellular component; ƒ2, extracellular diffusion; ƒ3, perfusion component), IVIM model (D, true diffusion coefficient; D*, pseudodiffusion coefficient; f, perfusion fraction), and ME model (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC). Results: The GD and IVIM models showed a better goodness-of-fit than the ME model (p < 0.05). ƒ1 had strong negative correlations with D and ADC (ρ = -0.901 and -0.937, respectively), while ƒ3 had a moderate positive correlation with f (ρ = 0.661). Malignant entity presented significantly higher ƒ1 and lower D and ADC than benign entity (p < 0.0001). Malignant lymphoma had significantly higher ƒ1 in comparison to squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0007) and granulation (p = 0.0075). The trend in ƒ1 was opposite to the trend in D. Malignant lymphoma had significant lower ƒ3 than squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.005) or granulation (p = 0.0075). Conclusions: The strong correlations were found between the GD- and IVIM-derived parameters. Furthermore, the GD model's parameters were useful for characterising the pathological structure in orofacial lesions.
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